Adverse Reactions1

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

VABOMERE™ (meropenem and vaborbactam) was evaluated in a Phase 3 comparator-controlled clinical trial in cUTI, including pyelonephritis, which included 272 patients treated with VABOMERE and 273 patients treated with the comparator piperacillin/tazobactam 4.5 grams (piperacillin 4 g/tazobactam 0.5 g) every 8 hours. After a minimum of 15 doses of IV therapy, patients could be switched to oral levofloxacin (500 mg daily every 24 hours) to complete the treatment course. Mean duration of IV therapy was 8 days in both treatment groups. Mean duration of IV and oral therapy was 10 days; patients with baseline bacteremia could receive up to 14 days of treatment.

The mean age of patients treated with VABOMERE was 53 years (range 18 to 92 years), and 32% of patients were 65 years of age or older. Patients were predominantly female (66.5%) and White (93.4%). Most patients were enrolled in Europe (89.7%).

Serious Adverse Reactions and Adverse Reactions Leading to Discontinuation

Treatment was discontinued due to adverse reactions in 2.9% (8/272) of patients receiving VABOMERE and in 5.1% (14/273) of patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam. Most common adverse reactions resulting in discontinuation of VABOMERE included hypersensitivity, 1.1% (3/272) and infusion-related reactions, 0.7% (2/272). Death occurred in 2 (0.7%) patients who received VABOMERE and in 2 (0.7%) patients who received piperacillin/tazobactam.

Common Adverse Reactions

The most frequently reported adverse reactions (3% or greater) in patients receiving VABOMERE in the Phase 3 cUTI trial were headache, phlebitis/infusion site reactions, and diarrhea. Table 3 provides adverse reactions occurring in 1% or greater of patients receiving VABOMERE in the Phase 3 cUTI trial.

Table 3: Adverse Reactions Occurring in 1% or Greater of Patients Receiving VABOMERE in the Phase 3 Clinical Trial in cUTI

Adverse
Reactions
VABOMERE
(N=272)
%
Piperacillin/
Tazobactama (N=273)
%
Headache 8.8 4.4
Phlebitis/Infusion site reactionsb 4.4 0.7
Diarrhea 3.3 4.4
Hypersensitivityc 1.8 1.8
Nausea 1.8 1.5
Alanine aminotransferase increased 1.8 0.4
Aspartate aminotransferase increased 1.5 0.7
Pyrexia 1.5 0.7
Hypokalemia 1.1 1.5

aPiperacillin/tazobactam 4.5 grams (piperacillin 4 g/tazobactam 0.5 g) IV infused over 30 minutes every 8 hours.

bInfusion site reactions include infusion/injection site phlebitis, infusion site thrombosis, and infusion site erythema.

cHypersensitivity includes hypersensitivity, drug hypersensitivity, anaphylactic reaction, rash urticaria, and bronchospasm.

Adverse Reactions Occurring in Less Than 1% of Patients Receiving VABOMERE in the Phase 3 cUTI Trial

  • Blood and lymphatic system disorders: leukopenia
  • General disorders and administration site conditions: chest discomfort
  • Infections and infestations: pharyngitis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, oral candidiasis
  • Investigations: creatinine phosphokinase increase
  • Metabolism and nutrition disorders: decreased appetite, hyperkalemia, hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia
  • Nervous system disorders: dizziness, tremor, paresthesia, lethargy
  • Psychiatric disorders: hallucination, insomnia
  • Renal and urinary disorders: azotemia, renal impairment
  • Vascular disorders: deep vein thrombosis, hypotension, vascular pain

Other Adverse Reactions Associated With Meropenem

Additionally, adverse reactions reported with meropenem alone that were not reported in VABOMERE-treated patients in the Phase 3 clinical trial are listed below:

  • Blood and lymphatic system disorders: thrombocytosis, neutropenia, eosinophilia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, hemolytic anemia
  • Gastrointestinal disorders: abdominal pain
  • Hepatobiliary disorders: jaundice
  • Nervous system disorders: convulsions
  • Investigations: blood alkaline phosphatase increased, blood lactate dehydrogenase increased, blood bilirubin increased, blood creatinine increased, blood urea increased, blood thromboplastin decreased, prothrombin time decreased, Direct and Indirect Coombs test positive
  • Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: pruritus, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens Johnson syndrome, Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome, erythema multiforme
  • Immune system disorders: angioedema
  • General disorders and administration site conditions: pain
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DOSING VABOMERE

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Reference: 1. Vabomere [package insert]. Lincolnshire, IL: Melinta Therapeutics, Inc.; 2018.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

VABOMERE™ (meropenem and vaborbactam) is indicated for the treatment of patients 18 years of age and older with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) including pyelonephritis caused by the following susceptible microorganisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter cloacae species complex.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of VABOMERE and other antibacterial drugs, VABOMERE should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria.


IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION

Contraindications

VABOMERE is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any components of VABOMERE (meropenem and vaborbactam), or to other drugs in the same class or in patients who have demonstrated anaphylactic reactions to beta-lactam antibacterial drugs.

Warnings and Precautions

  • Hypersensitivity reactions were reported in patients treated with VABOMERE in the clinical trials. Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions and serious skin reactions have been reported in patients receiving therapy with beta-lactam antibacterial drugs. There have been reports of individuals with a history of penicillin hypersensitivity who have experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions when treated with another beta-lactam antibacterial drug. If an allergic reaction to VABOMERE occurs, discontinue the drug immediately.
  • Seizures and other adverse Central Nervous System (CNS) experiences have been reported during treatment with meropenem, which is a component of VABOMERE. Close adherence to the recommended dosage regimens is urged, especially in patients with known factors that predispose to convulsive activity.
  • Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including VABOMERE, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial drug use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued.
  • The concomitant use of VABOMERE and valproic acid or divalproex sodium is generally not recommended. Case reports in the literature have shown that co-administration of carbapenems, including meropenem, to patients receiving valproic acid or divalproex sodium results in a reduction in valproic acid concentrations. The valproic acid concentrations may drop below the therapeutic range as a result of this interaction, therefore increasing the risk of breakthrough seizures. If administration of VABOMERE is necessary, consider supplemental anticonvulsant therapy.
  • In patients with renal impairment, thrombocytopenia has been observed in patients treated with meropenem, but no clinical bleeding has been reported.
  • Alert patients receiving VABOMERE on an outpatient basis regarding adverse reactions such as seizures, delirium, headaches and/or paresthesias that could interfere with mental alertness and/or cause motor impairment.
  • Prescribing VABOMERE in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of drug-resistant bacteria.
  • As with other antibacterial drugs, prolonged use of VABOMERE may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms.

Adverse Reactions

The most frequently reported adverse reactions occurring in ≥3% of patients treated with VABOMERE were headache, phlebitis/infusion site reactions, and diarrhea.

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